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pnpm 內建了對單一存放庫 (又稱為多重套件存放庫、多重專案存放庫或整合型存放庫) 的支援。 您可以建立一個工作區來將多個專案結合在一個單一存放庫的內部。

工作區的根目錄中必須具有 pnpm-workspace.yaml 檔。 工作區的根目錄中也可能會具有 .npmrc


如果您要研究 monorepo 管理,那麽您還可能想要研究 Bit。 Bit 實際上使用的是 pnpm,但是它會自動執行許多目前在由 pnpm/npm/Yarn 所管理的傳統工作區中需要手動執行的動作。 有一篇有關 bit install 的文章提到這些:用 Bit 輕鬆管理單一存放庫相依性 (英文網頁)。

工作區通訊協定 (workspace:)

預設情況下,如果可用的套件與已宣告的範圍相符,pnpm 將會連接工作區中的套件。 For instance, foo@1.0.0 is linked into bar if bar has "foo": "^1.0.0" in its dependencies. However, if bar has "foo": "2.0.0" in dependencies and foo@2.0.0 is not in the workspace, foo@2.0.0 will be installed from the registry. This behavior introduces some uncertainty.

Luckily, pnpm supports the workspace: protocol. When this protocol is used, pnpm will refuse to resolve to anything other than a local workspace package. So, if you set "foo": "workspace:2.0.0", this time installation will fail because "foo@2.0.0" isn't present in the workspace.

This protocol is especially useful when the link-workspace-packages option is set to false. In that case, pnpm will only link packages from the workspace if the workspace: protocol is used.

Referencing workspace packages through aliases

Let's say you have a package in the workspace named foo. Usually, you would reference it as "foo": "workspace:*".

If you want to use a different alias, the following syntax will work too: "bar": "workspace:foo@*".

Before publish, aliases are converted to regular aliased dependencies. The above example will become: "bar": "npm:foo@1.0.0".

Referencing workspace packages through their relative path

In a workspace with 2 packages:

+ packages
+ foo
+ bar

bar may have foo in its dependencies declared as "foo": "workspace:../foo". Before publishing, these specs are converted to regular version specs supported by all package managers.

Publishing workspace packages

When a workspace package is packed into an archive (whether it's through pnpm pack or one of the publish commands like pnpm publish), we dynamically replace any workspace: dependency by:

  • The corresponding version in the target workspace (if you use workspace:*, workspace:~, or workspace:^)
  • The associated semver range (for any other range type)

So for example, if we have foo, bar, qar, zoo in the workspace and they all are at version 1.5.0, the following:

"dependencies": {
"foo": "workspace:*",
"bar": "workspace:~",
"qar": "workspace:^",
"zoo": "workspace:^1.5.0"

Will be transformed into:

"dependencies": {
"foo": "1.5.0",
"bar": "~1.5.0",
"qar": "^1.5.0",
"zoo": "^1.5.0"

This feature allows you to depend on your local workspace packages while still being able to publish the resulting packages to the remote registry without needing intermediary publish steps - your consumers will be able to use your published workspaces as any other package, still benefitting from the guarantees semver offers.

Release workflow

Versioning packages inside a workspace is a complex task and pnpm currently does not provide a built-in solution for it. However, there are 2 well tested tools that handle versioning and support pnpm:

For how to set up a repository using Rush, read this page.

For using Changesets with pnpm, read this guide.


pnpm cannot guarantee that scripts will be run in topological order if there are cycles between workspace dependencies. If pnpm detects cyclic dependencies during installation, it will produce a warning. If pnpm is able to find out which dependencies are causing the cycles, it will display them too.

If you see the message There are cyclic workspace dependencies, please inspect workspace dependencies declared in dependencies, optionalDependencies and devDependencies.


Here are a few of the most popular open source projects that use the workspace feature of pnpm:

專案StarsMigration dateMigration commit
Vue 3.02021-10-0961c5fbd3e35152f5f32e95bf04d3ee083414cecb
Element Plus2021-09-23f9e192535ff74d1443f1d9e0c5394fad10428629
Rollup plugins2021-09-2153fb18c0c2852598200c547a0b1d745d15b5b487
VuePress 2.02022-04-23b85b1c3b39e80a8de92a7469381061f75ef33623