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Workspace

pnpm 內建了對 Monorepo (又稱為多重套件存放庫、多重專案存放庫或整合型存放庫) 的支援。 您可以建立一個工作區來將多個專案結合在一個單一 Repo 的內部。

工作區的根目錄中必須具有 pnpm-workspace.yaml。 工作區的根目錄中也可能會具有 .npmrc

提示

如果您要研究 monorepo 管理,那麽您還可能想要研究 Bit。 Bit 實際上使用的是 pnpm,但是它會自動執行許多目前在由 pnpm/npm/Yarn 所管理的傳統工作區中需要手動執行的動作。 有一篇有關 bit install 的文章提到了這些:用 Bit 輕鬆管理 Monorepo 依賴套件 (英文網頁)。

工作區通訊協定 (workspace:)

By default, pnpm will link packages from the workspace if the available packages match the declared ranges. For instance, foo@1.0.0 is linked into bar if bar has "foo": "^1.0.0" in its dependencies and foo@1.0.0 is in the workspace. However, if bar has "foo": "2.0.0" in dependencies and foo@2.0.0 is not in the workspace, foo@2.0.0 will be installed from the registry. This behavior introduces some uncertainty.

Luckily, pnpm supports the workspace: protocol. When this protocol is used, pnpm will refuse to resolve to anything other than a local workspace package. So, if you set "foo": "workspace:2.0.0", this time installation will fail because "foo@2.0.0" isn't present in the workspace.

This protocol is especially useful when the link-workspace-packages option is set to false. In that case, pnpm will only link packages from the workspace if the workspace: protocol is used.

通過別名引用工作區套件

Let's say you have a package in the workspace named foo. Usually, you would reference it as "foo": "workspace:*".

If you want to use a different alias, the following syntax will work too: "bar": "workspace:foo@*".

Before publish, aliases are converted to regular aliased dependencies. The above example will become: "bar": "npm:foo@1.0.0".

Referencing workspace packages through their relative path

In a workspace with 2 packages:

+ packages
+ foo
+ bar

bar may have foo in its dependencies declared as "foo": "workspace:../foo". Before publishing, these specs are converted to regular version specs supported by all package managers.

發佈工作區套件

When a workspace package is packed into an archive (whether it's through pnpm pack or one of the publish commands like pnpm publish), we dynamically replace any workspace: dependency by:

  • The corresponding version in the target workspace (if you use workspace:*, workspace:~, or workspace:^)
  • The associated semver range (for any other range type)

So for example, if we have foo, bar, qar, zoo in the workspace and they all are at version 1.5.0, the following:

{
"dependencies": {
"foo": "workspace:*",
"bar": "workspace:~",
"qar": "workspace:^",
"zoo": "workspace:^1.5.0"
}
}

將轉換為:

{
"dependencies": {
"foo": "1.5.0",
"bar": "~1.5.0",
"qar": "^1.5.0",
"zoo": "^1.5.0"
}
}

This feature allows you to depend on your local workspace packages while still being able to publish the resulting packages to the remote registry without needing intermediary publish steps - your consumers will be able to use your published workspaces as any other package, still benefitting from the guarantees semver offers.

發布流程

對工作區內的包進行版本控制是一項複雜的任務,pnpm 目前不提供內置解決方案。 但是,有 2 個經過充分測試的工具可以處理版本控制並支援 pnpm:

有關如何使用 Rush 設置 repository,請閱讀 本頁

有關如何將 Changesets 與 pnpm 配合使用,請閱讀 本指南

疑難排解

pnpm 無法保證在工作區相依關係之間有循環時,會以拓蹼順序執行指令 。 如果 pnpm 在安裝期間偵測到循環相依關係,他會產生一則警告。 如果 pnpm 能夠找出導致循環的相依關係,則它也會顯示它們。

如果您看到消息 There are cyclic workspace dependencies,請檢查在 dependenciesoptionalDependenciesdevDependencies 中聲明的工作空間依賴。

使用範例

以下是使用 pnpm 工作區功能的幾個最熱門的開放程式碼專案:

專案Stars遷移日遷移的Commit
Next.js2022-05-29f7b81316aea4fc9962e5e54981a6d559004231aa
Vite2021-09-263e1cce01d01493d33e50966d0d0fd39a86d229f9
Vue 3.02021-10-0961c5fbd3e35152f5f32e95bf04d3ee083414cecb
Prisma2021-09-21c4c83e788aa16d61bae7a6d00adc8a58b3789a06
Slidev2021-04-12d6783323eb1ab1fc612577eb63579c8f7bc99c3a
Element Plus2021-09-23f9e192535ff74d1443f1d9e0c5394fad10428629
Verdaccio2021-09-219dbf73e955fcb70b0a623c5ab89649b95146c744
Astro2022-03-08240d88aefe66c7d73b9c713c5da42ae789c011ce
Cycle.js2021-09-21f2187ab6688368edb904b649bd371a658f6a8637
VueUse2021-09-25826351ba1d9c514e34426c85f3d69fb9875c7dd9
NextAuth.js2022-05-034f29d39521451e859dbdb83179756b372e3dd7aa
SvelteKit2021-09-26b164420ab26fa04fd0fbe0ac05431f36a89ef193
Milkdown2021-09-264b2e1dd6125bc2198fd1b851c4f00eda70e9b913
Vitest2021-12-13d6ff0ccb819716713f5eab5c046861f4d8e4f988
Logto2021-07-290b002e07850c8e6d09b35d22fab56d3e99d77043
Nhost2022-02-0710a1799a1fef2f558f737de3bb6cadda2b50e58f
Rollup plugins2021-09-2153fb18c0c2852598200c547a0b1d745d15b5b487
ByteMD2021-02-1836ef25f1ea1cd0b08752df5f8c832302017bb7fb
icestark2021-12-164862326a8de53d02f617e7b1986774fd7540fccd
VuePress 2.02022-04-23b85b1c3b39e80a8de92a7469381061f75ef33623
Turborepo2022-03-02fd171519ec02a69c9afafc1bc5d9d1b481fba721