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Versão: 9.x

Perguntas frequentes

Why does my node_modules folder use disk space if packages are stored in a global store?

pnpm creates hard links from the global store to the project's node_modules folders. Hard links apontam para o mesmo espaço no disco onde os arquivos originais estão. So, for example, if you have foo in your project as a dependency and it occupies 1MB of space, then it will look like it occupies 1MB of space in the project's node_modules folder and the same amount of space in the global store. However, that 1MB is the same space on the disk addressed from two different locations. So in total foo occupies 1MB, not 2MB.

Para mais sobre este assunto:

Ele funciona no Windows?

Resposta curta: Sim. Resposta longa: Usando um link simbólico no Windows é problemático pra dizer o mínimo, entretanto, pnpm tem uma solução alternativa/gambiarra. For Windows, we use junctions instead.

But the nested node_modules approach is incompatible with Windows?

Early versions of npm had issues because of nesting all node_modules (see this issue). No entanto, pnpm não cria pastas profundas, ele armazena todos os pacotes de forma plana e utiliza links simbólicos para criar a estrutura de dependências.

Although pnpm uses linking to put dependencies into node_modules folders, circular symlinks are avoided because parent packages are placed into the same node_modules folder in which their dependencies are. So foo's dependencies are not in foo/node_modules, but foo is in node_modules together with its own dependencies.

Um pacote pode ter diferentes conjuntos de dependências numa mesma máquina.

In project A foo@1.0.0 can have a dependency resolved to bar@1.0.0, but in project B the same dependency of foo might resolve to bar@1.1.0; so, pnpm hard links foo@1.0.0 to every project where it is used, in order to create different sets of dependencies for it.

Direct symlinking to the global store would work with Node's --preserve-symlinks flag, however, that approach comes with a plethora of its own issues, so we decided to stick with hard links. For more details about why this decision was made, see this issue.

O pnpm funciona em diferentes subvolumes em uma partição Btrfs?

Embora o Btrfs não permita hardlinks entre dispositivos de diferentes subvolumes em uma única partição, ele permite reflinks. Como resultado, o pnpm utiliza reflinks para compartilhar dados entre esses subvolumes.

O pnpm funciona com diversas unidades de armazenamento ou sistemas de arquivos?

O armazenamento global de pacotes deve estar na mesma unidade de armazenamento e utilizando o mesmo sistema de arquivos da instalação. Caso contrário, os pacotes serão copiados, e não vinculados. Isso ocorre devido a uma limitação de como os hard links funcionam - um arquivo num determinado sistema de arquivos não pode ser direcionado para um endereço em outro sistema. See Issue #712 for more details.

pnpm funciona de maneira diferente nos dois casos abaixo:

O caminho para o armazenamento global é especificado

If the store path is specified via the store config, then copying occurs between the store and any projects that are on a different disk.

If you run pnpm install on disk A, then the pnpm store must be on disk A. If the pnpm store is located on disk B, then all required packages will be directly copied to the project location instead of being linked. Isso inibe severamente os benefícios de armazenamento e desempenho do pnpm.

O caminho para o armazenamento global NÃO é especificado

Se o caminho do armazenamento não estiver definido, vários armazenamentos serão criados (um por unidade ou sistema de arquivos).

If installation is run on disk A, the store will be created on A .pnpm-store under the filesystem root. If later the installation is run on disk B, an independent store will be created on B at .pnpm-store. Os projetos ainda manteriam os benefícios do pnpm, mas cada unidade pode ter pacotes redundantes.

What does pnpm stand for?

pnpm stands for performant npm. @rstacruz came up with the name.

pnpm does not work with <YOUR-PROJECT-HERE>?

In most cases it means that one of the dependencies require packages not declared in package.json. It is a common mistake caused by flat node_modules. Se isso acontecer, é um erro na dependência e a dependência deve ser corrigida. Isso pode levar algum tempo, então o pnpm suporta soluções alternativas para fazer os pacotes com bugs funcionarem.

Solução 1

In case there are issues, you can use the node-linker=hoisted setting. This creates a flat node_modules structure similar to the one created by npm.

Solução 2

In the following example, a dependency does not have the iterall module in its own list of deps.

The easiest solution to resolve missing dependencies of the buggy packages is to add iterall as a dependency to our project's package.json.

You can do so, by installing it via pnpm add iterall, and will be automatically added to your project's package.json.

  "dependencies": {
"iterall": "^1.2.2",

Solução 3

One of the solutions is to use hooks for adding the missing dependencies to the package's package.json.

An example was Webpack Dashboard which wasn't working with pnpm. It has since been resolved such that it works with pnpm now.

Costumava gerar um erro:

Error: Cannot find module 'babel-traverse'
at /node_modules/inspectpack@2.2.3/node_modules/inspectpack/lib/actions/parse

The problem was that babel-traverse was used in inspectpack which was used by webpack-dashboard, but babel-traverse wasn't specified in inspectpack's package.json. It still worked with npm and yarn because they create flat node_modules.

The solution was to create a .pnpmfile.cjs with the following contents:

module.exports = {
hooks: {
readPackage: (pkg) => {
if (pkg.name === "inspectpack") {
pkg.dependencies['babel-traverse'] = '^6.26.0';
return pkg;

After creating a .pnpmfile.cjs, delete pnpm-lock.yaml only - there is no need to delete node_modules, as pnpm hooks only affect module resolution. Then, rebuild the dependencies & it should be working.