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Workspace

pnpm은 기본적으로 ('multi-package repositories', 'multi-project repositories', 'monolithic repositories'로도 알려진) 모노레포를 지원합니다. 하나의 레포지토리에 다수의 프로젝트가 존재하는 워크스페이스를 생성할 수 있습니다.

워크스페이스는 최상위 디렉토리에 pnpm-workspace.yaml 파일을 가지고 있어야 합니다. 또한 .npmrc 파일을 가질 수 있습니다.

tip

모노레포를 관리하는 법을 찾고 있다면 Bit을 참고하세요. Bit uses pnpm under the hood but automates a lot of the things that are currently done manually in a traditional workspace managed by pnpm/npm/Yarn. There's an article about bit install that talks about it: Painless Monorepo Dependency Management with Bit.

Workspace protocol (workspace:)

기본적으로 pnpm은 이용 가능한 패키지 버전이 선언된 범위와 일치하는 경우에 workspace의 패키지를 참조합니다. 예를 들어, bar"foo": "^1.0.0"를 의존성으로 가지고 workspace에 foo@1.0.0가 존재하면 barfoo@1.0.0을 참조합니다 그러나 bar"foo": "2.0.0"를 의존성으로 포함하면서 workspace에 foo@2.0.0가 없다면 레지스트리에서 foo@2.0.0가 설치될 것입니다. 이 동작은 다소 불확실합니다.

다행히도 pnpm은 workspace: 프로토콜을 지원합니다. 이 프로토콜을 사용한다면, pnpm은 로컬 workspace 바깥의 패키지에서는 작업을 수행하지 않습니다. 만약 "foo": "workspace:2.0.0"로 설정되어 있다면 workspace에 "foo@2.0.0" 가 없기 때문에 설치에 실패할 것입니다.

이 프로토콜은 link-workspace-packages 옵션이 false로 설정된 경우에 특히 유용합니다. 이 경우, workspace: 프로토콜을 사용한다면 pnpm은 workspace에 있는 패키지만을 가져올 것입니다.

Referencing workspace packages through aliases

Let's say you have a package in the workspace named foo. Usually, you would reference it as "foo": "workspace:*".

If you want to use a different alias, the following syntax will work too: "bar": "workspace:foo@*".

Before publish, aliases are converted to regular aliased dependencies. The above example will become: "bar": "npm:foo@1.0.0".

Referencing workspace packages through their relative path

In a workspace with 2 packages:

+ packages
+ foo
+ bar

bar may have foo in its dependencies declared as "foo": "workspace:../foo". Before publishing, these specs are converted to regular version specs supported by all package managers.

Publishing workspace packages

When a workspace package is packed into an archive (whether it's through pnpm pack or one of the publish commands like pnpm publish), we dynamically replace any workspace: dependency by:

  • The corresponding version in the target workspace (if you use workspace:*, workspace:~, or workspace:^)
  • The associated semver range (for any other range type)

So for example, if we have foo, bar, qar, zoo in the workspace and they all are at version 1.5.0, the following:

{
"dependencies": {
"foo": "workspace:*",
"bar": "workspace:~",
"qar": "workspace:^",
"zoo": "workspace:^1.5.0"
}
}

Will be transformed into:

{
"dependencies": {
"foo": "1.5.0",
"bar": "~1.5.0",
"qar": "^1.5.0",
"zoo": "^1.5.0"
}
}

This feature allows you to depend on your local workspace packages while still being able to publish the resulting packages to the remote registry without needing intermediary publish steps - your consumers will be able to use your published workspaces as any other package, still benefitting from the guarantees semver offers.

Release workflow

Versioning packages inside a workspace is a complex task and pnpm currently does not provide a built-in solution for it. However, there are 2 well tested tools that handle versioning and support pnpm:

For how to set up a repository using Rush, read this page.

For using Changesets with pnpm, read this guide.

Troubleshooting

pnpm cannot guarantee that scripts will be run in topological order if there are cycles between workspace dependencies. If pnpm detects cyclic dependencies during installation, it will produce a warning. If pnpm is able to find out which dependencies are causing the cycles, it will display them too.

If you see the message There are cyclic workspace dependencies, please inspect workspace dependencies declared in dependencies, optionalDependencies and devDependencies.

Usage examples

Here are a few of the most popular open source projects that use the workspace feature of pnpm:

ProjectStarsMigration dateMigration commit
Next.js2022-05-29f7b81316aea4fc9962e5e54981a6d559004231aa
Vite2021-09-263e1cce01d01493d33e50966d0d0fd39a86d229f9
Vue 3.02021-10-0961c5fbd3e35152f5f32e95bf04d3ee083414cecb
Prisma2021-09-21c4c83e788aa16d61bae7a6d00adc8a58b3789a06
Slidev2021-04-12d6783323eb1ab1fc612577eb63579c8f7bc99c3a
Astro2022-03-08240d88aefe66c7d73b9c713c5da42ae789c011ce
Turborepo2022-03-02fd171519ec02a69c9afafc1bc5d9d1b481fba721
Element Plus2021-09-23f9e192535ff74d1443f1d9e0c5394fad10428629
Verdaccio2021-09-219dbf73e955fcb70b0a623c5ab89649b95146c744
NextAuth.js2022-05-034f29d39521451e859dbdb83179756b372e3dd7aa
VueUse2021-09-25826351ba1d9c514e34426c85f3d69fb9875c7dd9
SvelteKit2021-09-26b164420ab26fa04fd0fbe0ac05431f36a89ef193
Cycle.js2021-09-21f2187ab6688368edb904b649bd371a658f6a8637
Vercel2023-01-129c768b98b71cfc72e8638bf5172be88c39e8fa69
Vitest2021-12-13d6ff0ccb819716713f5eab5c046861f4d8e4f988
Milkdown2021-09-264b2e1dd6125bc2198fd1b851c4f00eda70e9b913
Nhost2022-02-0710a1799a1fef2f558f737de3bb6cadda2b50e58f
Logto2021-07-290b002e07850c8e6d09b35d22fab56d3e99d77043
ByteMD2021-02-1836ef25f1ea1cd0b08752df5f8c832302017bb7fb
Rollup plugins2021-09-2153fb18c0c2852598200c547a0b1d745d15b5b487
icestark2021-12-164862326a8de53d02f617e7b1986774fd7540fccd